Supply Chain Management

คือ ระบบที่จัดการการบริหารและเชื่อมโยงเครือข่ายตั้งแต่ suppliers, manufacturers, distributors เพื่อส่งมอบสินค้าหรือบริการให้ลูกค้าโดยมีการเชื่อมโยงระบบข้อมูล วัตถุดิบ สินค้าและบริการ เงินทุน รวมถึงการส่งมอบเข้าด้วยกัน เพื่อให้การส่งมอบเป็นไปอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพและสามารถส่งมอบได้ตรงตามเวลาและความต้องการ

Helen Peek และคณะได้กล่าวถึงระยะของการเปลี่ยนแปลงธุรกิจเพื่อเข้าสู่กระบวนบริหารซัพพลายเชน 4 ระยะ คือ

  • ระยะที่ 1 องค์กรในรูปแบบพื้นฐาน (The Baseline Organization)
  • ระยะที่ 2 องค์กรที่รวมหน้าที่ทางธุรกิจเข้าด้วยกัน (The Functionally Integrated Company)
  • ระยะที่ 3 องค์กรที่รวมการดำเนินงานภายในธุรกิจไว้ด้วยกัน (The Internally Integrated Company)
  • ระยะที่ 4 องค์กรที่รวมการดำเนินงานภายนอกธุรกิจไว้ด้วยกัน (The Externally Integrated Company)


เป็นการจัดการที่ต้องอาศัยความร่วมมือของคู่ค้าที่เกี่ยวข้องในซัพพลายเชนเราเป็นสำคัญ องค์กรที่มีความรู้ในการบริหารจัดการดีควรต้องถ่ายทอดแนวคิดและวิธีการปรับปรุงระบบงานและการประสานงานระหว่างองค์กรให้แก่องค์กรอื่นๆ ในซัพพลายเชน การพัฒนาศักยภาพของซัพพลายเชนนั้น นอกจากระบบการประสานงานที่ดีภายในองค์กรแต่ละองค์กรแล้ว จะต้องพิจารณาความสามารถในการประสานระบบงานระหว่างองค์กรใน 3 ส่วนหลัก ได้แก่

1. ศักยภาพในการประสานระบบการจัดการระหว่างกลุ่ม suppliers (Supply-management interface capabilities)

2. ศักยภาพในการประสานระบบการจัดการให้สอดคล้องกับความต้องการของลูกค้า(Demand-management interface capabilities)

3. ศักยภาพในการประสานระบบการจัดการสารสนเทศ(Information management capabilities)


1. ปัญหาจากการพยากรณ์

 2. ปัญหาในกระบวนการผลิต

3. ปัญหาด้านคุณภาพ

4. ปัญหาในการส่งมอบสินค้า

5. ปัญหาด้านสารสนเทศ

6. ปัญหาจากลูกค้า

** Bullwhip Effect  คือ ปัญหาที่เกิดจากความแปรปรวนเล็กน้อยของความต้องการถูกนำมาขยาย เมื่อส่งข้อมูลกลับต้นทาง




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